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Moby dig -Acrobatics from bottlenose dolphins A humpback tail fluke A fin whale sounding next prev. Zwar ist anerkannt worden, er habe eine vom Hass deformierte Persönlichkeit durchaus passabel dargestellt, und die Kameraführung habe ihren Teil dazu beigetragen. Melville lobte das Buch in White-Jacket dt. Zimmer gab der Version von Jendis den Vorzug: Dass sich Ahab, der Kapitän dieses Schiffs, an Bord befindet, vermittelt sich ihnen in den ersten Tagen auf See nur durch die Geräusche, die sein künstliches Bein nachts auf Deck verursacht.
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Hey folks We finally made it! Queequeg dives after him and frees his mate with his sword. The Pequod next gams with the Jungfrau from Bremen.
Both ships sight whales simultaneously, with the Pequod winning the contest. The three harpooneers dart their harpoons, and Flask delivers the mortal strike with a lance.
The carcass sinks, and Queequeg barely manages to escape. The Pequod ' s next gam is with the French whaler Bouton de Rose , whose crew is ignorant of the ambergris in the gut of the diseased whale in their possession.
Stubb talks them out of it, but Ahab orders him away. Days later, an encounter with a harpooned whale prompts Pip, a little black cabin-boy from Alabama, to jump out of his whale boat.
The whale must be cut loose, because the line has Pip so entangled in it. Furious, Stubb orders Pip to stay in the whale boat, but Pip later jumps again, and is left alone in the immense sea and has gone insane by the time he is picked up.
Cooled sperm oil congeals and must be squeezed back into liquid state; blubber is boiled in the try-pots on deck; the warm oil is decanted into casks, and then stowed in the ship.
After the operation, the decks are scrubbed. The coin hammered to the main mast shows three Andes summits, one with a flame, one with a tower, and one a crowing cock.
Ahab stops to look at the doubloon and interprets the coin as signs of his firmness, volcanic energy, and victory; Starbuck takes the high peaks as evidence of the Trinity ; Stubb focuses on the zodiacal arch over the mountains; and Flask sees nothing of any symbolic value at all.
The Manxman mutters in front of the mast, and Pip declines the verb "look". The Pequod next gams with the Samuel Enderby of London , captained by Boomer, a down-to-earth fellow who lost his right arm to Moby Dick.
Nevertheless, he carries no ill will toward the whale, which he regards not as malicious, but as awkward. Ahab puts an end to the gam by rushing back to his ship.
The narrator now discusses the subjects of 1 whalers supply; 2 a glen in Tranque in the Arsacides islands full of carved whale bones, fossil whales, whale skeleton measurements; 3 the chance that the magnitude of the whale will diminish and that the leviathan might perish.
Leaving the Samuel Enderby , Ahab wrenches his ivory leg and orders the carpenter to fashion him another. Starbuck informs Ahab of oil leakage in the hold.
Reluctantly, Ahab orders the harpooneers to inspect the casks. Queequeg, sweating all day below decks, develops a chill and soon is almost mortally feverish.
The carpenter makes a coffin for Queequeg, who fears an ordinary burial at sea. Queequeg tries it for size, with Pip sobbing and beating his tambourine, standing by and calling himself a coward while he praises Queequeg for his gameness.
Yet Queequeg suddenly rallies, briefly convalesces, and leaps up, back in good health. Henceforth, he uses his coffin for a spare seachest, which is later caulked and pitched to replace the Pequod ' s life buoy.
The Pequod sails northeast toward Formosa and into the Pacific Ocean. Ahab, with one nostril, smells the musk from the Bashee isles, and with the other, the salt of the waters where Moby Dick swims.
Ahab goes to Perth, the blacksmith, with a bag of racehorse shoenail stubs to be forged into the shank of a special harpoon, and with his razors for Perth to melt and fashion into a harpoon barb.
Ahab tempers the barb in blood from Queequeg, Tashtego, and Daggoo. The Pequod gams next with the Bachelor , a Nantucket ship heading home full of sperm oil.
Every now and then, the Pequod lowers for whales with success. On one of those nights in the whaleboat, Fedallah prophesies that neither hearse nor coffin can be Ahab's, that before he dies, Ahab must see two hearses — one not made by mortal hands and the other made of American wood — that Fedallah will precede his captain in death, and finally that only hemp can kill Ahab.
As the Pequod approaches the Equator , Ahab scolds his quadrant for telling him only where he is and not where he will be. He dashes it to the deck.
That evening, an impressive typhoon attacks the ship. Lightning strikes the mast, setting the doubloon and Ahab's harpoon aglow.
Ahab delivers a speech on the spirit of fire, seeing the lightning as a portent of Moby Dick. Starbuck sees the lightning as a warning, and feels tempted to shoot the sleeping Ahab with a musket.
Next morning, when he finds that the lightning disoriented the compass, Ahab makes a new one out of a lance, a maul, and a sailmaker's needle.
He orders the log be heaved, but the weathered line snaps, leaving the ship with no way to fix its location.
The Pequod is now heading southeast toward Moby Dick. A man falls overboard from the mast. The life buoy is thrown, but both sink.
Now Queequeg proposes that his superfluous coffin be used as a new life buoy. Starbuck orders the carpenter take care it is lidded and caulked.
Next morning, the ship meets in another truncated gam with the Rachel , commanded by Captain Gardiner from Nantucket.
The Rachel is seeking survivors from one of her whaleboats which had gone after Moby Dick. Among the missing is Gardiner's young son.
Ahab refuses to join the search. Twenty-four hours a day, Ahab now stands and walks the deck, while Fedallah shadows him. Suddenly, a sea hawk grabs Ahab's slouched hat and flies off with it.
Next, the Pequod , in a ninth and final gam, meets the Delight , badly damaged and with five of her crew left dead by Moby Dick.
Her captain shouts that the harpoon which can kill the white whale has yet to be forged, but Ahab flourishes his special lance and once more orders the ship forward.
Ahab shares a moment of contemplation with Starbuck. Ahab speaks about his wife and child, calls himself a fool for spending 40 years on whaling, and claims he can see his own child in Starbuck's eye.
Starbuck tries to persuade Ahab to return to Nantucket to meet both their families, but Ahab simply crosses the deck and stands near Fedallah.
On the first day of the chase, Ahab smells the whale, climbs the mast, and sights Moby Dick. He claims the doubloon for himself, and orders all boats to lower except for Starbuck's.
The whale bites Ahab's boat in two, tosses the captain out of it, and scatters the crew. On the second day of the chase, Ahab leaves Starbuck in charge of the Pequod.
Moby Dick smashes the three boats that seek him into splinters and tangles their lines. Ahab is rescued, but his ivory leg and Fedallah are lost. Starbuck begs Ahab to desist, but Ahab vows to slay the white whale, even if he would have to dive through the globe itself to get his revenge.
On the third day of the chase, Ahab sights Moby Dick at noon, and sharks appear, as well. Ahab lowers his boat for a final time, leaving Starbuck again on board.
Moby Dick breaches and destroys two boats. Fedallah's corpse, still entangled in the fouled lines, is lashed to the whale's back, so Moby Dick turns out to be the hearse Fedallah prophesied.
Moby Dick smites the whaleboat, tossing its men into the sea. Only Ishmael is unable to return to the boat. He is left behind in the sea, and so is the only crewman of the Pequod to survive the final encounter.
The whale now fatally attacks the Pequod. Ahab then realizes that the destroyed ship is the hearse made of American wood in Fedallah's prophesy. The whale returns to Ahab, who stabs at him again.
As he does so, the line gets tangled, and Ahab bends over to free it. In doing so the line loops around Ahab's neck, and as the stricken whale swims away, the captain is drawn with him out of sight.
Queequeg's coffin comes to the surface, the only thing to escape the vortex when Pequod sank. For an entire day, Ishmael floats on it, until the Rachel , still looking for its lost seamen, rescues him.
Ishmael is the narrator, shaping his story with use of many different genres including sermons, stage plays, soliloquies, and emblematical readings.
Narrator Ishmael, then, is "merely young Ishmael grown older. Bezanson warns readers to "resist any one-to-one equation of Melville and Ishmael.
According to critic Walter Bezanson, the chapter structure can be divided into "chapter sequences", "chapter clusters", and "balancing chapters".
The simplest sequences are of narrative progression, then sequences of theme such as the three chapters on whale painting, and sequences of structural similarity, such as the five dramatic chapters beginning with "The Quarter-Deck" or the four chapters beginning with "The Candles".
Chapter clusters are the chapters on the significance of the colour white, and those on the meaning of fire.
Balancing chapters are chapters of opposites, such as "Loomings" versus the "Epilogue," or similars, such as "The Quarter-Deck" and "The Candles".
Scholar Lawrence Buell describes the arrangement of the non-narrative chapters as structured around three patterns: Each has been more and more severely damaged, foreshadowing the Pequod ' s own fate.
Second, the increasingly impressive encounters with whales. In the early encounters, the whaleboats hardly make contact; later there are false alarms and routine chases; finally, the massive assembling of whales at the edges of the China Sea in "The Grand Armada".
A typhoon near Japan sets the stage for Ahab's confrontation with Moby Dick. The third pattern is the cetological documentation, so lavish that it can be divided into two subpatterns.
These chapters start with the ancient history of whaling and a bibliographical classification of whales, getting closer with second-hand stories of the evil of whales in general and of Moby Dick in particular, a chronologically ordered commentary on pictures of whales.
The climax to this section is chapter 57, "Of whales in paint etc. The next chapter "Brit" , thus the other half of this pattern, begins with the book's first description of live whales, and next the anatomy of the sperm whale is studied, more or less from front to rear and from outer to inner parts, all the way down to the skeleton.
Two concluding chapters set forth the whale's evolution as a species and claim its eternal nature. Some "ten or more" of the chapters on whale killings, beginning at two-fifths of the book, are developed enough to be called "events".
As Bezanson writes, "in each case a killing provokes either a chapter sequence or a chapter cluster of cetological lore growing out of the circumstance of the particular killing," thus these killings are "structural occasions for ordering the whaling essays and sermons".
Bryant and Springer find that the book is structured around the two consciousnesses of Ahab and Ishmael, with Ahab as a force of linearity and Ishmael a force of digression.
Ahab with violence, Ishmael with meditation. And while the plot in Moby-Dick may be driven by Ahab's anger, Ishmael's desire to get a hold of the "ungraspable" accounts for the novel's lyricism.
Ahab's is to hunt Moby Dick, Ishmael's is "to understand what to make of both whale and hunt". One of the most distinctive features of the book is the variety of genres.
Bezanson mentions sermons, dreams, travel account, autobiography, Elizabethan plays, and epic poetry.
A significant structural device is the series of nine meetings gams between the Pequod and other ships. These meetings are important in three ways.
First, their placement in the narrative. The initial two meetings and the last two are both close to each other.
The central group of five gams are separated by about 12 chapters, more or less. This pattern provides a structural element, remarks Bezanson, as if the encounters were "bones to the book's flesh".
Second, Ahab's developing responses to the meetings plot the "rising curve of his passion" and of his monomania.
Third, in contrast to Ahab, Ishmael interprets the significance of each ship individually: Instead, they may be interpreted as "a group of metaphysical parables, a series of biblical analogues, a masque of the situation confronting man, a pageant of the humors within men, a parade of the nations, and so forth, as well as concrete and symbolic ways of thinking about the White Whale".
Scholar Nathalia Wright sees the meetings and the significance of the vessels along other lines. She singles out the four vessels which have already encountered Moby Dick.
The first, the Jeroboam , is named after the predecessor of the biblical King Ahab. Her "prophetic" fate is "a message of warning to all who follow, articulated by Gabriel and vindicated by the Samuel Enderby , the Rachel , the Delight , and at last the Pequod ".
None of the other ships has been completely destroyed because none of their captains shared Ahab's monomania; the fate of the Jeroboam reinforces the structural parallel between Ahab and his biblical namesake: An early enthusiast for the Melville Revival, British author E.
Forster , remarked in Biographer Laurie Robertson-Lorant sees epistemology as the book's theme. Ishmael's taxonomy of whales merely demonstrates "the limitations of scientific knowledge and the impossibility of achieving certainty".
She also contrasts Ishmael and Ahab's attitudes toward life, with Ishmael's open-minded and meditative, "polypositional stance" as antithetical to Ahab's monomania, adhering to dogmatic rigidity.
Melville biographer Delbanco cites race as an example of this search for truth beneath surface differences. All races are represented among the crew members of the Pequod.
Although Ishmael initially is afraid of Queequeg as a tattooed cannibal, he soon decides, "Better sleep with a sober cannibal than a drunken Christian.
The theme of race is primarily carried by Pip, the diminutive black cabin boy. Editors Bryant and Springer suggest perception is a central theme, the difficulty of seeing and understanding, which makes deep reality hard to discover and truth hard to pin down.
Ahab explains that, like all things, the evil whale wears a disguise: How can the prisoner reach outside, except by thrusting through the wall? To me, the white whale is that wall" Ch.
This theme pervades the novel, perhaps never so emphatically as in "The Doubloon" Ch. Later, the American edition has Ahab "discover no sign" Ch.
In fact, Moby Dick is then swimming up at him. In the British edition, Melville changed the word "discover" to "perceive", and with good reason, for "discovery" means finding what is already there, but "perceiving", or better still, perception, is "a matter of shaping what exists by the way in which we see it".
Yet Melville does not offer easy solutions. Ishmael and Queequeg's sensual friendship initiates a kind of racial harmony that is shattered when the crew's dancing erupts into racial conflict in "Midnight, Forecastle" Ch.
Commodified and brutalized, "Pip becomes the ship's conscience". In Chapter 89, Ishmael expounds the concept of the fast-fish and the loose-fish, which gives right of ownership to those who take possession of an abandoned fish or ship, and observes that the British Empire took possession of American Indian lands in colonial times in just the way that whalers take possession of an unclaimed whale.
The novel has also been read as being critical of the contemporary literary and philosophical movement Transcendentalism , attacking the thought of leading Transcendentalist  Ralph Waldo Emerson in particular.
Richard Chase writes that for Melville, 'Death—spiritual, emotional, physical—is the price of self-reliance when it is pushed to the point of solipsism, where the world has no existence apart from the all-sufficient self.
An incomplete inventory of the language of Moby-Dick by editors Bryant and Springer includes "nautical, biblical, Homeric, Shakespearean, Miltonic, cetological" influences, and his style is "alliterative, fanciful, colloquial, archaic, and unceasingly allusive": Melville tests and exhausts the possibilities of grammar, quotes from a range of well-known or obscure sources, and swings from calm prose to high rhetoric, technical exposition, seaman's slang, mystic speculation, or wild prophetic archaism.
Many words that make up the vocabulary of Moby-Dick are Melville's own coinages, critic Newton Arvin recognizes, as if the English vocabulary were too limited for the complex things Melville had to express.
Perhaps the most striking example is the use of verbal nouns, mostly plural, such as allurings , coincidings , and leewardings.
Equally abundant are unfamiliar adjectives and adverbs, including participial adjectives such as officered , omnitooled , and uncatastrophied ; participial adverbs such as intermixingly , postponedly , and uninterpenetratingly ; rarities such as the adjectives unsmoothable , spermy , and leviathanic , and adverbs such as sultanically , Spanishly , and Venetianly ; and adjectival compounds ranging from odd to magnificent, such as "the message-carrying air", "the circus-running sun", and " teeth-tiered sharks".
Arvin's categories have been slightly expanded by later critics, most notably Warner Berthoff. The superabundant vocabulary of the work can be broken down into strategies used individually and in combination.
First, the original modification of words as "Leviathanism"  and the exaggerated repetition of modified words, as in the series "pitiable", "pity", "pitied" and "piteous" Ch.
Characteristic stylistic elements of another kind are the echoes and overtones. His three most important sources, in order, are the Bible, Shakespeare, and Milton.
Another notable stylistic element are the several levels of rhetoric, the simplest of which is "a relatively straightforward expository style" that is evident of many passages in the cetological chapters, though they are "rarely sustained, and serve chiefly as transitions" between more sophisticated levels.
One of these is the " poetic " level of rhetoric, which Bezanson sees "well exemplified" in Ahab's quarter-deck soliloquy, to the point that it can be set as blank verse.
Examples of this are "the consistently excellent idiom" of Stubb, such as in the way he encourages the rowing crew in a rhythm of speech that suggests "the beat of the oars takes the place of the metronomic meter".
The fourth and final level of rhetoric is the composite , "a magnificent blending" of the first three and possible other elements:.
The Nantucketer, he alone resides and riots on the sea; he alone, in Bible language, goes down to it in ships; to and fro ploughing it as his own special plantation.
There is his home; there lies his buisiness, which a Noah's flood would not interrupt, though it overwhelmed all the millions in China.
He lives on the sea, as prairie cocks in the prairie; he hides among the waves, he climbs them as chamois hunters climb the Alps. For years he knows not the land; so that when he comes to it at last, it smells like another world, more strangely than the moon would to an Earthsman.
With the landless gull, that at sunset folds her wings and is rocked to sleep between billows; so at nightfall, the Nantucketer, out of sight of land, furls his sails, and lays him to his rest, while under his very pillow rush herds of walruses and whales.
This passage, from a chapter that Bezanson calls a comical "prose poem", blends "high and low with a relaxed assurance". Similar great passages include the "marvelous hymn to spiritual democracy" that can be found in the middle of "Knights and Squires".
The elaborate use of the Homeric simile may not have been learned from Homer himself, yet Matthiessen finds the writing "more consistently alive" on the Homeric than on the Shakespearean level, especially during the final chase the "controlled accumulation" of such similes emphasizes Ahab's hubris through a succession of land-images, for instance: For as the one ship that held them all; though it was put together of all contrasting things—oak, and maple, and pine wood; iron, and pitch, and hemp—yet all these ran into each other in the one concrete hull, which shot on its way, both balanced and directed by the long central keel; even so, all the individualities of the crew, this man's valor, that man's fear; guilt and guiltiness, all varieties were welded into oneness, and were all directed to that fatal goal which Ahab their one lord and keel did point to.
The final phrase fuses the two halves of the comparison, the men become identical with the ship, which follows Ahab's direction.
The concentration only gives way to more imagery, with the "mastheads, like the tops of tall palms, were outspreadingly tufted with arms and legs".
All these images contribute their "startling energy" to the advance of the narrative. When the boats are lowered, the imagery serves to dwarf everything but Ahab's will in the presence of Moby Dick.
The influence of Shakespeare on the book has been analyzed by F. Matthiessen in his study of the American Renaissance with such results that almost a half century later Bezanson still considered him "the richest critic on these matters.
Matthiessen points out that the "mere sounds, full of Leviathanism, but signifying nothing" at the end of "Cetology" Ch. That thing unsays itself.
There are men From whom warm words are small indignity. I mean not to incense thee. The pagan leopards—the unrecking and Unworshipping things, that live; and seek and give.
No reason for the torrid life they feel! Most importantly, through Shakespeare, Melville infused Moby-Dick with a power of expression he had not previously possessed.
Lawrence put it, convey something "almost superhuman or inhuman, bigger than life". In addition to this sense of rhythm, Melville acquired verbal resources which for Matthiessen showed that he "now mastered Shakespeare's mature secret of how to make language itself dramatic".
The creation of Ahab, Melville biographer Leon Howard discovered, followed an observation by Coleridge in his lecture on Hamlet: Ahab seemed to have "what seems a half-wilful over-ruling morbidness at the bottom of his nature", and "all men tragically great", Melville added, "are made so through a certain morbidness ; "all mortal greatness is but disease ".
In addition to this, in Howard's view, the self-references of Ishmael as a "tragic dramatist", and his defense of his choice of a hero who lacked "all outward majestical trappings" is evidence that Melville "consciously thought of his protagonist as a tragic hero of the sort found in Hamlet and King Lear ".
Moby-Dick is based on Melville's experience on the whaler Acushnet , however even the book's most factual accounts of whaling are not straight autobiography.
On December 30, , he signed on as a green hand for the maiden voyage of the Acushnet , planned to last for 52 months.
Its owner, Melvin O. Bradford, resembled Bildad, who signed on Ishmael, in that he was a Quaker: But the shareholders of the Acushnet were relatively wealthy, whereas the owners of the Pequod included poor widows and orphaned children.
The crew was not as heterogenous or exotic as the crew of the Pequod. Five of the crew were foreigners, four of them Portuguese, and the others were American, either at birth or naturalized.
Three black men were in the crew, two seamen and the cook. Fleece, the cook of the Pequod , was also black, so probably modeled on this Philadelphia-born William Maiden, who was 38 years old when he signed for the Acushnet.
Only 11 of the 26 original crew members completed the voyage. The others either deserted or were regularly discharged. Starbuck, was on an earlier voyage with Captain Pease, in the early s, and was discharged at Tahiti under mysterious circumstances.
Hubbard also identified the model for Pip: John Backus, a little black man added to the crew during the voyage. Ahab seems to have had no model in real life, though his death may have been based on an actual event.
Aboard were two sailors from the Nantucket who could have told him that they had seen their second mate "taken out of a whaleboat by a foul line and drowned".
Melville attended a service there shortly before he shipped out on the Acushnet , and he heard a sermon by the chaplain, year-old Reverend Enoch Mudge , who is at least in part the model for Father Mapple.
Even the topic of Jonah and the Whale may be authentic, for Mudge was a contributor to Sailor's Magazine , which printed in December the ninth of a series of sermons on Jonah.
In addition to his own experience on the whaling ship Acushnet , two actual events served as the genesis for Melville's tale. The other event was the alleged killing in the late s of the albino sperm whale Mocha Dick , in the waters off the Chilean island of Mocha.
Mocha Dick was rumored to have 20 or so harpoons in his back from other whalers, and appeared to attack ships with premeditated ferocity.
One of his battles with a whaler served as subject for an article by explorer Jeremiah N. This renowned monster, who had come off victorious in a hundred fights with his pursuers, was an old bull whale, of prodigious size and strength.
From the effect of age, or more probably from a freak of nature Significantly, Reynolds writes a first-person narration that serves as a frame for the story of a whaling captain he meets.
The captain resembles Ahab and suggests a similar symbolism and single-minded motivation in hunting this whale, in that when his crew first encounters Mocha Dick and cowers from him, the captain rallies them:.